Microcontrollers, a small computer on a single integrated circuit, allow for input from sensors, and power LEDs to send signals to other devices over protocols. However, most microcontrollers do not have enough power alone to send signals to other devices. Thankfully, transistors exist and provide an excellent solution to higher power needs. First developed in 1922 by Julius Edgar, transistors weren’t given much thought until 1947 when physicists John Barden, William Shockley, and Walter Brattain use them to create a device while working at AT&T. This was one of the biggest milestones in technology history and transistors are now the modern building block of all computing devices.